Senile diseases: a list of diseases of the elderly, their causes and symptoms
19 Sep, 2022
Old age is not a joy, but it is quite possible to live a full life in advanced years, not paying much attention to years! Over time, the body of each person wears out, sores gradually accumulate. And by a certain date, as a rule, everyone has a whole bunch of problems that we have to deal with. In our article, we will consider the most common senile (age-related) diseases of the elderly, old people, a list, causes and symptoms.
What factors do doctors call determining in the appearance of ailments
The general group of pathologies, which manifests itself over time, does not have a rigid framework. The aging process begins at an age when no one thinks about it yet (at 30-35 years). Changes occur at the cellular level, metabolism slows down, and “errors” accumulate. Until a certain time, this does not appear. When the number of violations becomes critical, then any stressful situation provokes the onset of some kind of illness. And the older the person, the higher the likelihood of ailments in a particular area.
Depending on the lifestyle, past infections, injuries and genetic predisposition, doctors predict the possibility of a wide variety of age-related diseases in the elderly. The appearance of ailments can provoke:
Abuse of strong alcoholic beverages.
Uncontrolled intake of drugs.
Lack of communication.
Bad mental atmosphere.
All these factors are an unfavorable background, on the basis of which there is an accelerated decay of all vital organs and the risk of developing pathologies increases under bad circumstances.
The most common diseases of the elderly and senile age
In one way or another, all systems wear out and which one will fail is difficult to predict. Previously, advanced years were accompanied by problems with joints, vision, hearing, but today ailments associated with blood circulation and digestion have come to the fore.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system
Statistics say that this is the most common group of pathologies. Unfortunately, in the early stages, cardiac ischemia is very difficult to diagnose, since it manifests itself without any special symptoms. The only thing that can bother the elderly is shortness of breath and a slight tingling in the chest area.
Myocardial infarction is accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen, shoulders, neck, and changes in heart rhythm. Sometimes it looks like a stroke. Diagnosed by a blood test, where the ESR is elevated and leukocytosis is detected.
Arterial hypertension affects people under 60 years of age. Older adults with severe hypertension simply do not survive. The main symptoms are unsteady gait, headache, accompanied by tinnitus, weakness. Often this condition turns into a hypertensive crisis.
Heart failure can be associated with sclerotic changes in both the main organ and blood vessels. It is expressed by general malaise, fatigue, decreased visual acuity, disturbances in the motor apparatus, and ultimately a decrease in mental activity (dementia).
Cerebral ischemia is characterized by reduced blood flow and is manifested by low performance, irritability, poor sleep, inattention and absent-mindedness.
List of diseases of old age related to digestion
Troubles in the abdominal cavity can manifest as:
Constipation or diarrhea.
Ulcers of the stomach.
They are dangerous because they provoke exacerbation of problems in other organs.
Violations in this area have become classics of age after 65. Sleepiness during the day is replaced by wakefulness at night and in the morning. Ultimately, if appropriate measures are not taken, this can provoke more serious pathologies, up to and including death. For a few days of insomnia, a person may:
Develop a permanent mental disorder.
Rise in blood pressure.
Appear neurasthenia or depression.
List of 10 diseases of old people
Consider the most common ailments that accompany old age:
Pain in the head and neck.
Difficulty in breathing.
Diseases of the joints and connective tissues.
Decreased mental ability.
What is Alzheimer's disease and why is it dangerous?
Unfortunately, the disease affects people who led the right way of life, engaged in scientific activities and developed their memory up to old age. Until now, doctors have not come to a consensus, because of which there is a loss of elementary skills, and degradation of the individual. It has been proven that the main factor that provokes damage to nerve cells is a poorly produced enzyme responsible for the transmission of impulses.
List of causes
There are adverse factors in which a serious illness can develop:
genetic predisposition. If a close relative has a clouded mind, then there is a high probability that children and grandchildren will have the same syndrome with a belated onset. Although the gene responsible for the pathology has been deduced, scientists do not yet know how to prevent trouble.
Age. Oddly enough, but after the age of 85, an elderly person rarely develops Alzheimer's disease. The risk group includes people who have crossed the sixty-five-year milestone.
Concomitant diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertensive crisis, cardiac ischemia), undergone brain surgery and injuries.
What is Parkinson's disease and how is it characterized
"Shaking paralysis" is erroneously attributed only to grandparents. But this is fundamentally not true. The disease has recently become much “younger”. People under 50 years of age are at risk and this is due to genetic reasons. It turned out that due to heredity, more than 80% of the population are ill. In addition, viruses and infections are provocateurs. As an example, the transferred influenza gives serious complications and can become the culprit in the development of pathology.
Lack of the hormone (dopamine) responsible for the psychophysical state can lead to brain damage, disruption of normal lifestyle and slow development of Parkinson's.
In addition, there are several factors that can exacerbate the situation:
Unfavorable environmental conditions.
Work at chemical enterprises.
Long-term use of alcohol and tobacco products.
Uncontrolled intake of drugs.
How does it manifest
At the first stage, the tremor of the limbs and tingling in the hands are attributed to fatigue. Therefore, it is very difficult to recognize the disease at the first stage. But still, it is worth contacting a neurologist (if such symptoms are repeated from time to time) to stop the following manifestations:
The coordination of movements is disturbed.
The fine motor skills of the hands are deteriorating.
Speech becomes slurred.
The mouth is open.
There is strong salivation.
Not only the head is shaking, but also the jaw.
There are frequent fainting.
The state is oppressed, depressive.
Ultimately, memory is lost, a person cannot do without outside help. If he is left alone, he often falls during the movement, which leads to fractures and other injuries. At the last stage, it remains motionless and can no longer swallow food, which leads to death.
In this case, he needs round-the-clock care, and from a qualified medical worker. The best way out of this situation is to place him in a specialized clinic or in a nursing home, for example, in a hotel from the company "Care". The guest will be provided with all conditions for a comfortable stay.
What diseases of the joints in the elderly (elderly people) are most often worried
With the natural aging of the body, negative processes also occur in the musculoskeletal system. The tissues become inelastic, flabby, the joints are deformed, and the muscles and cartilage lose their original elasticity. By the age of 60-65, many pensioners complain of pain in the limbs. Explicit reasons have not yet been identified, but the main ones are considered to be inflammation transferred in childhood, metabolic disorders, and degenerative features of the body.
Unfortunately, the disease does not manifest itself for a long time and can appear suddenly under the influence of any unfavorable situation. It develops in stages and progresses for a long time.
This is a combination of the inflammatory process in all joints. This affects the elbows, knees, ankles, fingers, spine. In addition, the liver, heart and kidneys are often affected. The main symptom of a violation is severe pain when walking and prolonged physical exertion.
It develops due to thinning of the articular cartilage. As a result, adjacent bones, not having a gasket between themselves, begin to rub against each other. Therefore, tumors form in the connecting places, leading to pain and, ultimately, to loss of motor function.
Redness of the skin in the problem area.
Crack and crunch.
Increased temperature in a painful place.
Arthrosis is a disease of the elderly and senile age.
It is characterized by dystrophic changes (degeneration and destruction) of intra-articular cartilage. The popular name is "salt deposition". Due to the deformation of large joints (hip, knee and shoulder), where the gaps decrease, and osteophyte spikes form along the edges of the surfaces, the patient experiences pain, stiffness and difficulty in moving.
What heart problems are most common in the elderly
Unfortunately, doctors state that citizens die from diseases of the cardiovascular system in our country twice as often as from other ailments. Consider the most dangerous pathologies.
It develops in women over 55 years of age and in men who are 60-65 years old. A dangerous signal is that when measuring blood pressure, the tonometer shows indicators above 90 per 145 units of mercury. Reasons for the appearance:
bad habits (alcohol and tobacco use);
high blood cholesterol;
damage to blood vessels and arteries by atherosclerotic plaques.
It is characterized by a strong difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. The patient does not feel any signs of the disease on himself, sometimes there is tinnitus, headache, heartbeat quickens, nausea. But these symptoms are attributed to age and therefore rarely go to the doctor. Diagnosis is carried out at a later date. Therefore, the risk of getting a stroke or dying is greatly increased.
Pain behind the sternum occurs with increased physical or emotional stress. This happens because during work or stress, the heart does not receive enough oxygen. Patients with this diagnosis always relieve pain with nitroglycerin. But in medical practice, there is unstable angina, which manifests itself at night and is a harbinger of a heart attack. In such a situation, urgent hospitalization is necessary to avoid a fatal outcome.
Asthma is one of the age-related diseases of the elderly and senile age.
It is accompanied by attacks of shortness of breath, sometimes turning into suffocation, lasting from several minutes to 2-3 hours. The patient, as a rule, is tormented exclusively at night by a dry cough (sometimes with the release of light sputum), he does not have enough oxygen. In addition, the symptoms are aggravated by the fear of death. He finds relief if he comes to an open window or if he is in a sitting position with his feet on the floor.
There is pallor of the skin, blue lips and nail phalanges, the face is covered with perspiration. Asthma often precedes the development of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Prior to the arrival of an ambulance, first aid must be provided. Put the patient in a chair, feet and lower legs immerse in hot water. If possible, make an intramuscular injection of morphine, intravenous - furosemide and carry out oxygen inhalation.
Choose the care your relative needs
In older people, symptoms are practically absent, and weakness, dizziness, decreased visual acuity and impaired motor function are attributed to old age. With increased physical exertion, a person experiences shortness of breath, a strong heartbeat. In such a state, it is impossible to postpone a visit to the therapist.
In a healthy person, the phases of contraction and relaxation of the heart alternate in a certain rhythm (from 60 to 90 times per minute). And deviations in one direction or another from these indicators indicate a serious disorder. Unfortunately, the initial stage very quickly turns into a permanent form, where the arrhythmia lasts more than seven days. And without proper treatment, the patient dies.
Diseases associated with the respiratory system
A very common occurrence is pneumonia, which proceeds atypically, so it is difficult to recognize it. The main symptoms are of a general nature: lethargy, apathy, refusal to eat, slight fever, rapid shallow breathing. It is possible to diagnose only after a general blood test, which will show leukocytosis, elevated ESR and radiography.
Preventive actions of the main diseases of elderly women and men (men)
If you want your relatives to live happily ever after in old age, then pay more attention to them. Do not bring illnesses to a chronic stage, try to follow the recommendations of doctors for treatment and prevention.
To exclude the development of dementia, it is necessary to take stress and troubles calmly. In addition, we recommend:
engage in feasible physical labor, which lead to emotional relaxation;
swim, jog, do morning exercises;
use vitamins E and A;
Eliminate foods high in sugar and caffeine from your diet.
How to prevent troubles associated with the heart and blood vessels
The development of atherosclerosis, ischemia, hypertension, heart attack can be avoided if you achieve a good blood supply. For this you need:
change food. On your table should be cereals from whole grains, lean meat of turkey, rabbit or chicken. Do not forget about freshly squeezed juices, vegetables and herbs;
go hungry from time to time. This will help get rid of cholesterol plaques;
massage at least twice a year.
It is important to remember that women are twice as likely to get cancer as men. To prevent dangerous manifestations, we recommend using our tips:
avoid stressful situations;
protect yourself as much as possible from exposure to chemical materials (asbestos, PVC, etc.);
protect yourself from direct sunlight;
watch your weight. Periodically arrange fasting days;
include fiber-rich foods in your diet.
We briefly told you about the syndromes of old people, the treatment and prevention of senile (age-related) chronic diseases of the elderly. It depends on you how long and qualitatively your close relative will live. Solve health problems together with doctors!